Pesticide Induced Rashes Leave Delaware Students Angered

The Green at the University of Delaware was recently sprayed with weed killers that reportedly caused students’ rashes.

Lack of Posting Law Leaves Students Unaware of Pesticide Dangers

The Mall. The Green. The Common. The Great Lawn. Whatever the name, almost all state colleges have one. And however one feels about all that mown grass requiring all that water, gas and fertilizer to maintain, there’s no denying the aesthetic and function of a large, regal gathering place at the center of a campus.

It’s perhaps the quintessential landscape feature of higher education, a place where youth is served, where innocence is celebrated  . . . and sometimes lost.

“You just never imagine your own university would put known poisons down where we all go to sit and study or just relax,” said Kayla Iuliano, an undergraduate student at University of Delaware. “When you  first hear about this it’s almost impossible to believe. It is not OK. It’s disgusting.”

Kayla Iuliano

Iuliano, from Racine, Wisc., said she first learned that her university sprayed pesticides on the grass from a friend, Kelsey Crane, who experienced a rash-like sensation after sitting on what Delaware students call “The Green.” She soon encountered other friends with similar stories of painful rashes and ultimately confronted one of the school’s pesticide applicators to ask him about the products he was using. That led to further talks with a reluctant administration.

Iuliano, an environmental science major, instantly became a journalist, publishing an Oct. 9 article in the school newspaper that called the college’s practice of spraying synthetic chemical weed killers into question.

“It was an incredible eye-opener for me,” she said. “Right away you knew something was up when you started asking questions. They didn’t want to answer. If they were using something super eco-friendly you’d think they would have been eager to share the information, but they weren’t.”

DON’T ASK, DON’T TELL . . . DON’T POST

In most states across the country the University of Delaware’s pesticide applicators would have been breaking a law and facing fines by not posting “Keep off the Grass” signs after spraying with two synthetic chemical weed-killing products known as Basagran T/O and PowerZone. In abutting New Jersey, in fact, the signs would have been required to remain in place for 72 hours, but Delaware doesn’t require so much as a four-hour flag.

“Why don’t we? That’s a good question,” said Dave Pyne, the state’s pesticide compliance administrator. “No one’s ever asked us to write that regulation. I’m not sure how effective how posting little signs is in keeping people off large areas anyway.”

Steve Carter, a former pesticide inspector with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, said some pesticide companies do post recently sprayed areas “as a courtesy to the customer and to protect themselves,” but admitted most probably did not.

That leaves students like sophomore Dylan Lecce completely vulnerable and without warning. He told Iuliano he was ”exercising on The Green approximately two weeks ago with a group of people” when he came in contact with the grass.

He also told her that, minutes after contact, “he and a majority of the group noticed their faces were irritated. Lecce said his eyes were burning as well.”

“My skin was pretty much on fire,” Lecce said.

SAFETY ASSUMPTIONS VS. LABEL REALITY

Those types of symptoms read directly off the Material Safety Data Sheets and product labels for PowerZone, a commonly used cocktail of four different weed-killing products in one. Among the ingredients are known and suspected carcinogens, endocrine disruptors, as well as eye and skin irritants.

At the University of Colorado at Boulder, where the lawn is maintained with organic protocols, students are not put at risk from synthetic chemical pesticides.

“Symptoms of exposure to (one of the ingredients, mecoprop) include burning skin and eyes, nausea, dizziness, and headaches,” reads a report from The Journal of Pesticide Reform. “In laboratory tests, mecoprop has inhibited the synthesis of DNA (the molecules that contain genetic information), interfered with blood clotting, and inhibited the production of important components of the immune system.”

Other symptoms tied to the weed-killing products used at the University of Delaware include a reduction in fertility, increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and neurological impairment.

“Students are just out there in the grass completely unaware of all these risks that the university is exposing us to,” said Iuliano. “The university advertises itself as being an eco-friendly campus. But if The Green’s not green, that’s obviously not true.”

She said she was given the standard pesticide party line by the university’s director of communications.

“University Spokesman John Brennan stated in an email message that workers are not required to post signs when areas are sprayed because the chemicals are not harmful when used properly, and personnel are trained in how to apply them,” she wrote in her article. “He said the sprays are commonly-used commercial products and are registered for use with the Environmental Protection Agency. They are recognized in the industry as safe when applied as directed.”

Even the synthetic chemical pesticide industry, however, would recommend that Delaware students stay off the grass at least until the pesticide products are dry and there’s no indication that is happening on a campus that doesn’t require even minimal posting. The students, and their tuition-paying parents, have every right to feel betrayed by an irresponsible pesticide policy.

This is clearly a situation where the university — and an entire state — need to take action.

 

Article source: http://www.safelawns.org/blog/2012/10/pesticide-induced-rashes-leave-delaware-students-angered/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pesticide-induced-rashes-leave-delaware-students-angered

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Pesticide Induced Rashes Leave Delaware Students Angered

The Green at the University of Delaware was recently sprayed with weed killers that reportedly caused students’ rashes.

Lack of Posting Law Leaves Students Unaware of Pesticide Dangers

The Mall. The Green. The Common. The Great Lawn. Whatever the name, almost all state colleges have one. And however one feels about all that mown grass requiring all that water, gas and fertilizer to maintain, there’s no denying the aesthetic and function of a large, regal gathering place at the center of a campus.

It’s perhaps the quintessential landscape feature of higher education, a place where youth is served, where innocence is celebrated  . . . and sometimes lost.

“You just never imagine your own university would put known poisons down where we all go to sit and study or just relax,” said Kayla Iuliano, an undergraduate student at University of Delaware. “When you  first hear about this it’s almost impossible to believe. It is not OK. It’s disgusting.”

Kayla Iuliano

Iuliano, from Racine, Wisc., said she first learned that her university sprayed pesticides on the grass from a friend, Kelsey Crane, who experienced a rash-like sensation after sitting on what Delaware students call “The Green.” She soon encountered other friends with similar stories of painful rashes and ultimately confronted one of the school’s pesticide applicators to ask him about the products he was using. That led to further talks with a reluctant administration.

Iuliano, an environmental science major, instantly became a journalist, publishing an Oct. 9 article in the school newspaper that called the college’s practice of spraying synthetic chemical weed killers into question.

“It was an incredible eye-opener for me,” she said. “Right away you knew something was up when you started asking questions. They didn’t want to answer. If they were using something super eco-friendly you’d think they would have been eager to share the information, but they weren’t.”

DON’T ASK, DON’T TELL . . . DON’T POST

In most states across the country the University of Delaware’s pesticide applicators would have been breaking a law and facing fines by not posting “Keep off the Grass” signs after spraying with two synthetic chemical weed-killing products known as Basagran T/O and PowerZone. In abutting New Jersey, in fact, the signs would have been required to remain in place for 72 hours, but Delaware doesn’t require so much as a four-hour flag.

“Why don’t we? That’s a good question,” said Dave Pyne, the state’s pesticide compliance administrator. “No one’s ever asked us to write that regulation. I’m not sure how effective how posting little signs is in keeping people off large areas anyway.”

Steve Carter, a former pesticide inspector with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, said some pesticide companies do post recently sprayed areas “as a courtesy to the customer and to protect themselves,” but admitted most probably did not.

That leaves students like sophomore Dylan Lecce completely vulnerable and without warning. He told Iuliano he was ”exercising on The Green approximately two weeks ago with a group of people” when he came in contact with the grass.

He also told her that, minutes after contact, “he and a majority of the group noticed their faces were irritated. Lecce said his eyes were burning as well.”

“My skin was pretty much on fire,” Lecce said.

SAFETY ASSUMPTIONS VS. LABEL REALITY

Those types of symptoms read directly off the Material Safety Data Sheets and product labels for PowerZone, a commonly used cocktail of four different weed-killing products in one. Among the ingredients are known and suspected carcinogens, endocrine disruptors, as well as eye and skin irritants.

At the University of Colorado at Boulder, where the lawn is maintained with organic protocols, students are not put at risk from synthetic chemical pesticides.

“Symptoms of exposure to (one of the ingredients, mecoprop) include burning skin and eyes, nausea, dizziness, and headaches,” reads a report from The Journal of Pesticide Reform. “In laboratory tests, mecoprop has inhibited the synthesis of DNA (the molecules that contain genetic information), interfered with blood clotting, and inhibited the production of important components of the immune system.”

Other symptoms tied to the weed-killing products used at the University of Delaware include a reduction in fertility, increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and neurological impairment.

“Students are just out there in the grass completely unaware of all these risks that the university is exposing us to,” said Iuliano. “The university advertises itself as being an eco-friendly campus. But if The Green’s not green, that’s obviously not true.”

She said she was given the standard pesticide party line by the university’s director of communications.

“University Spokesman John Brennan stated in an email message that workers are not required to post signs when areas are sprayed because the chemicals are not harmful when used properly, and personnel are trained in how to apply them,” she wrote in her article. “He said the sprays are commonly-used commercial products and are registered for use with the Environmental Protection Agency. They are recognized in the industry as safe when applied as directed.”

Even the synthetic chemical pesticide industry, however, would recommend that Delaware students stay off the grass at least until the pesticide products are dry and there’s no indication that is happening on a campus that doesn’t require even minimal posting. The students, and their tuition-paying parents, have every right to feel betrayed by an irresponsible pesticide policy.

This is clearly a situation where the university — and an entire state — need to take action.

 

Article source: http://www.safelawns.org/blog/2012/10/pesticide-induced-rashes-leave-delaware-students-angered/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pesticide-induced-rashes-leave-delaware-students-angered

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The Body Electric

Daniel Atha is an Associate Editor of NYBG‘s systemic botany journal, Brittonia, and a researcher specializing in floristics, taxonomy, and economic botany. He has taught classes in anatomy and systemics at the Garden’s School of Professional Horticulture and is currently working on a project to develop identifying DNA barcodes for plants of the Northeastern United States.


“I knew a man, a common farmer, the father of five sons,
And in them the fathers of sons, and in them the fathers of sons.”

–Walt Whitman, “I Sing the Body Electric,” from Leaves of Grass, 1855

Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle)

If told there was a substance promising that each of our five sons, and each of their five sons would grow up to be “massive, clean, tan-faced, handsome,” would we approach that substance with caution, treating it with respect and gratitude? Or would we rush out, blindly gathering as much as we could? Well… Mother Nature must have seen us coming because, while she created just such material, she cleverly devised a way to ensure we respect it.

The “substance” of course is stinging nettle. And of all the matter on earth, nettles come closest to providing our every need in one convenient package. Nettles help us grow strong and they keep us healthy and happy for life. Along the way they feed us, clothe us, transport us, soothe our pains and they even make us beautiful. Want more? They give it, body and soul, sacrificing all for the next generation.

Nettles are a “perfect food,” containing vitamin A, vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (panothenic acid), vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, acetycholine, calcium, chlorophyll, chromium, iron, magnesium, potassium, selenium, serotonin, sulphur and zinc. And like only a handful of plants, they pack plenty of protein. Fortified with nettles, our immune systems have what they need to keep us healthy and our brains have the neurotransmitters to keep us happy. The flax-like stem fibers have clothed our bodies in soft, durable fiber from neolithic loincloths to WWI army uniforms, even providing a dye to make them green. Nettle fiber sails transported us across oceans and nettle nets caught our fish. Not forgetting our vanity, they tone our skin, treat our dandruff, make our hair shine and some say they even make it grow. Farmers know this and feed nettles to their animals for a healthy, glowing coat. Since the dawn of recorded history and undoubtedly much earlier, our ancestors have been using nettle to treat rheumatism and arthritis, perhaps working by the principle of “what doesn’t kill us only makes us stronger.” As if they haven’t given enough already, nettles even save some of their endowment to fertilize our soil so we can grow other crops–and raise more children.

Anything this valuable needs protection, and Mother Nature reserved her most potent weapons–formic acid and histamines–for her favorites: the nettles, ants, bees and wasps.

Stinging nettles are one of 30 species in the genus Urtica, in Latin meaning “to burn.” The specific epithet, ‘dioica,’ means two houses (di-two, oicos-house), so given because in nettles, the sexes (male and female) are produced by separate plants. For our purposes, it doesn’t matter–they both give equally.

Growing in dense, circular clumps in moist, nitrogen-rich soil, the numerous stems arise from thick, hard rhizomes, each stem attaining the height of a man, un-branched, squarish in cross-section and clothed in slender, needle-like hairs. The leaves are widely-spaced, oval, dentate on the margins, cordate at the base and likewise endowed with needle-like hairs, especially on the under-sides (abaxial surface). The flowers (either male or female) are small, greenish-yellow, and produced in loose clusters toward the top of the stem later in the season. Harvest your nettles before they’re knee-high, though. As they age, nettles accumulate calcium crystals (called cystoliths) which are not easily broken down and may irritate the digestive tract. Don’t worry though, cystoliths are not toxic and young plants don’t have them at all.

The hairs are where it gets really interesting. Each one is in reality a tiny hypodermic needle–slender, hollow cells filled with potent chemicals. Our skin is pretty amazing stuff, but no match for a nettle hair. When we brush against them, the tips easily penetrate the skin, break off, and inject formic acid and histamine underneath, provoking an immediate response–ouch! Formic acid, the very same substance used by ants, bees, wasps and a few other insects, causes inflammation, burning and intense itching, lasting from minutes to hours–or even days in sensitive individuals. Removing the sting from your nettles is as simple as rubbing them vigorously between gloved hands if eating them fresh, or washing the nettles before blanching them in simmering water.

The biochemical pathway of urtication (the sensation of being stung by nettles) is similar to the electrical signals our nerve cells use to communicate. In this case, they’re saying, “Respect the nettle, my son!”

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Article source: http://www.nybg.org/plant-talk/2012/04/learning/the-body-electric/

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Why Ban Lawn Pesticides? The List of Reasons Keeps Growing

With several states and additional Canadian municipalities considering bans on synthetic pesticides used to maintain landscapes, we’re often asked to summarize all the reasons why we advocate for legislation that makes certain products illegal.

Here’s the primer:

LAWNS AND SAFETY

The industry that manufactures and applies synthetic chemical pesticides (weed-killers, insecticides and fungicides) hides behind EPA blessing of its products, suggesting that such approval by the Environmental Protection Agency is proof that their pesticides are safe when used as directed. The reality is that EPA approval is NOT a finding of safety, but rather it is a risk-benefit analysis of health and environmental risks weighed against economic benefits. In most cases, those risks and benefits are borne by differing members of society. In other words, the chemical companies and applicators get the money and the homeowners, ponds, lakes, rivers, oceans etc. bear the risks. The EPA approves some incredibly dangerous products, most of which have never been fully tested for safety — and only real testing is done by the manufacturers themselves. The EPA needs to receive loads of complaints about a product before it engages in its own testing.

LAWNS AND HEALTH

Seventeen of 32 (53 percent) of the most commonly registered and utilized lawn pesticide products in the United States include ingredients that are likely carcinogens, as defined by the EPA and the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Thirteen of 32 (41 percent) of the approved lawn pesticide products include ingredients that are banned or restricted in other countries due to their health and environmental impacts.

According to the Material Safety Data Sheets of the most commonly used lawn pesticides, the products can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat; burning, stinging, itches, rashes, and blistering of the skin; nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; and coughing, wheezing, headache, and general malaise. Because these symptoms are similar or identical to those caused by other illnesses, acute pesticide poisoning is often misdiagnosed.

Pesticide exposure occurs through numerous pathways, including the skin, eyes, ears, nose and mouth — all areas where children are particularly sensitive.

The National Academy of Sciences estimates that one in 7 adults suffers acute symptoms of pesticide poisoning (such as those symptoms listed above) — most of which are not diagnosed.

Exposure to pesticides is also linked with chronic illness, such as cancer, behavioral impairment, reproductive dysfunction, endocrine disruption, developmental disabilities, ADHD, Autism, Parkinson’s Syndrome, learning disabilities, skin conditions, and respiratory diseases such as asthma.

A National Cancer Institute study states that, “although research is underway to characterize the risks of childhood cancer associated with pesticides and identify the specific pesticides responsible, it is prudent to reduce or, where possible, eliminate pesticide exposure to children, given their increased vulnerability and susceptibility. In particular, efforts should be focused to reduce exposure to pesticides used in homes and gardens and on lawns and public lands, which are major sources of exposure for most children.

A number of studies have linked lawn pesticides to childhood illnesses:

a) A University of Southern California study showed that children whose parents used garden pesticides were 6.5 times more likely to develop leukemia.

b) According to EPA’s Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, children receive 50 percent of their lifetime cancer risks in the first two years of life.

c) Children with brain cancer are more likely to have been exposed to insecticides in the home.

d) Children in families that use professional pest control services are at higher risk of developing leukemia than children in families that don’t use pesticides.

e) A 1990 study by the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment concluded that “in general, [human health] research demonstrates that pesticide poisoning can lead to poor performance on tests including intellectual functioning, academic skills, abstraction, flexibility of thought, and motor skills; memory disturbances and inability to focus attention; deficits in intelligence, reaction time, and manual dexterity; and reduced perceptual speed. Increased anxiety and emotional problems have also been reported.”

A US EPA study found that residues from outdoor pesticides are tracked in by pets and people’s shoes, and can increase the pesticide loads in carpet dust as much as 400-fold. These pesticides, intended for outdoor use, will persist for years indoors because they are sheltered from sun, rain and other forces that can degrade them.

Another study, published in November 2003 by the Silent Spring Institute, which was funded by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, showed that residents may be continuously exposed to dangerous levels of pesticides in their home decades after application.

Recently, an “inert” ingredient in the most common lawn pesticide product known as Roundup was found to kill human cells. The French government sued the manufacturer of Roundup for making improper safety claims about Roundup.

LAWN TRENDS

Canada has announced it will ban weed ’n feed nationwide by the end of 2012. This ban was seen as a compromise between Health Canada and the pesticide industry, which agreed that weed ’n feed products put excess amounts of pesticides in the environment.

More than 80 percent of the Canadian population has banned “cosmetic” herbicides used to kill dandelions, clover etc. on lawns. Most major Canadian retailers including Home Depot have stopped selling herbicides and have committed to selling alternatives.

The states of New York and Connecticut banned the applications of lawn pesticides around schools and daycare centers.

More than 35 municipalities in New Jersey have enacted bans of synthetic lawn pesticides on public property.

In its 9-0 landmark decision, the Supreme Court of Canada invoked “The Precautionary Principle” with regard to pesticides. The Precautionary Principles means that, even in situations where there is not absolute proof of harm in all cases, precaution should be taken to protect the environment and human health.

The National Gardening Association data shows that 10 percent of consumers are currently utilizing exclusively organic products; that total is expected to grow to 50 percent of the marketplace by 2014.

ORGANIC ALTERNATIVES
The efficacy and understanding of organic products has increased dramatically in the past five years; several new organic products have entered the market in just the past three years, including a natural “selective” herbicide that can replace the most toxic chemicals.

Canadian landscapes that have been grown without pesticides for years are still beautiful. Mayors and town managers have reported a reduction in costs for mowing, watering, fertilizing and pesticide applications.

LAWNS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

All 32 of the most common lawn pesticide products include ingredients that pose threats to the environment, including: threats to water supplies, birds, fish, other aquatic organisms, and non-targeted insects.

The National Academy of Sciences estimates that homeowners utilize 10 times the amount of fertilizer and pesticides per acre of lawn and landscape than do farmers.

In 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency completed a nationwide survey of pesticides in wells that provide drinking water. It showed that more than half of the 94,000 community water system wells and rural wells tested contained nitrates from fertilizer. Nearly 15 percent of residential wells contained lawn pesticides.

A Cornell University study led by Dr. David Pimentel concluded that 99.5 percent of pesticides do not hit the target pest when applied. The bulk of the pesticide hits or drifts to non-targeted plants, animals, water and soil.

The chemical mostly commonly used for grub control in lawns, known as imidacloprid, has been blamed for Colony Collapse Disorder in bees in France, Germany, Israel and many other nations. Many scientists and beekeepers in the U.S. have now reached the same conclusion.

COST

For years, the biggest limiting factor in lawn care was price; organics was typically 20 to 100 percent more expensive on action. These days, with the rising price of synthetic products tied to the fuel index, as well as the lowering cost of many organic products, the playing field has tipped in favor of organics — especially over time.

NOTEWORTHY

The New York Board of Pesticide Control estimates that 8 of 10 homeowners do NOT fully read the label on pesticide containers.

Dozens of health care organizations, including the Canadian Cancer Society, the Ontario College of Family Physicans and the Canadian Association of Physcians for the Environment, all endorse the Canadian bans on lawn pesticides.

Article source: http://www.safelawns.org/blog/index.php/2012/02/why-ban-lawn-pesticides-the-list-of-reasons-keeps-growing/

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Sun Safety: Respect the Heat

When I was a kid, I spent much of my day outdoors. As I got older and became interested in gardening and other hobbies, more and more of my time was spent in the hot sun, and I hardly ever wore sunscreen.

This was a common theme in my family, but a trend that I have stopped when it comes to my children. I love spring and the smell of freshly cut grass as I tend to my garden, but safety in the sun is of utmost importance.

It is because of this unrepentant sun worshiper mentality that members of my family have had to go under the knife again and again to have various skin cancers removed from their face and bodies. While it may not seem like a big deal while you are out in it, the sun can cause serious injury and possibly death if the cancer becomes terminal or you experience heat stroke. Here are some tips to keep yourself safe while out in your yard:

1. Sun block: When the sun tans or reddens your skin, you are being cooked. The same reasoning behind why your chicken turns a nice golden brown in the oven, translates to why you tan and burn. Apply sun block regularly of at least SPF 30 or preferably higher to keep from cooking yourself outside.

2. Wear wide-brimmed hats: They may not make the runways of fashion week, but large, wide-brimmed hats block the sun from hitting your skin, especially your face. Do they look ridiculous? Yes. Will they save you an agonizing trip to the surgeon to have large chunks of your face removed? Possibly.

3. Keep hydrated: The sun not only bake your skin, but also heats you up and causes you to sweat. You lose significant moisture through sweating, and this can dehydrate you. Always keep a bottle or two of water with you when working outside. Take drinks frequently, and if you start getting a headache or experience dizziness, then stop what you are doing and go to a cool place to rest. If it doesn’t get any better, then call a doctor.

I am actually one of the lucky ones in my family so far. I haven’t experience any skin cancers or other sun blemishes, and hopefully, I won’t. I began respecting the sun in the mid ’90s after a particularly harrowing incident where I developed heat exhaustion from spending too much time outside with no protection. I not only nearly passed out, but also had severe burning and blistering from the burns.

The sun is what sustains life on this planet, but if you don’t respect its power, then it can cause you serious pains now and down the road.

Image Source:flickr.com/photos/tabithahawk/353961934

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How to Extract Seeds from Ornamental Peppers

So what can you do while it’s under 20 degrees outside and you are stuck inside but still want to do something garden related? Extract seeds from ornamental peppers! That probably wasn’t the first thing on your mind but it works for me! Extracting the seeds from these ‘Black Pearl’ ornamental peppers was one of those small items on my to-do list that I kept intending to do but just never got around to do it. (I moved my Black Pearl pepper plant indoors in a pot to overwinter for next year so I wasn’t in a big hurry*.)

The other day I was looking in a catalog and saw the seeds for Black Pearl going for around $5 per pack. It didn’t tell me how many seeds were in each pack but in other catalogs I’ve seen the seeds with at most 10 in each package. The seeds should come true but since I haven’t raised it from seed before I can’t claim to have verified that with my own eyes.

Extracting the seeds is easy but take caution because these peppers can be hot! In the past I’ve burned the skin on my fingers while trying to chop fresh cayenne peppers – I had no wish to replicate that experience! To extract the seeds I used a paring knife and a fork. I held the ripe red pepper** down with the fork and cut each pepper in half. Then I used the tip of the paring knife to scrape out the pepper seeds onto a plate. Easy and fast! the inside of each little cherry sized pepper is almost all seed.

Then I let them dry overnight. You can see how saving a few seeds can really aid your gardening budget. I didn’t count the seeds but there could be from 75-100 that came from 7 Black Pearl peppers. Now if you divide that up into the package above then pay what the catalogs ask you come up with a $35-$50 price tag! (10 seeds per pack at $5 a pack) Saving seed is well worth the time to keep your favorite plants from year to year.

Did you save seed this fall?

* Peppers are perennials but are not cold hardy and may be overwintered indoors in pots like houseplants.
**Black Pearl Ornamental Peppers turn from an extremely dark purple to a red color when ripe.

Originally written by Dave @ The Home Garden
Not to be reproduced or re-blogged without permission. No feed scraping is permitted.
All Rights Reserved.


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